Do I need to refund overpaid wages?

Situations when the employer transfers to the employee's account an amount greater than that provided for by the employment contract and other documents are not uncommon in labor practice. Usually the issue of returning extra money is resolved through negotiations, but there are times when the employee does not make concessions. In what cases does the employer have the right to withhold money from the next salary, and when it is not possible to get money from the employee even through the court — in the material

In what cases can an employer withhold an overpayment from future receipts? 

The grounds that allow an employer to forcibly withdraw their money back are listed in Art. 137 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation (Labor Code of the Russian Federation) — there are five of them: 

1. You can withhold part of the vacation pay if the employee left before the end of the year for which he had already “taken off” vacation.

2. You can keep part of the advance if the employee has not worked the required number of days.

3. You can withhold money that the employee has not reported spending, such as travel expenses.

4. You can keep the money if the accountant made a mistake in the calculations — added the wrong amounts or made a mistake in a comma, etc.

5. If the employee's salary depends on meeting the standards, you can withhold part of the income if the standard is not met.

How much can an employer withhold at a time? 

Labor legislation sets limits on the amount that an employer can immediately deduct from the next payment — no more than 20% of the accrued. That is, if the overpayment amounted to five thousand rubles, and the employee is credited, for example, with an advance payment in the amount of ten thousand rubles, then no more than two thousand rubles can be withheld as a refund of the overpayment.

Can the employee return the overpayment voluntarily?  

Of course. Regardless of the reasons for the overpayment, the employee and the employer can agree on a voluntary refund. In this case, the employer needs to notify the employee in writing that extra money has been credited to his account, explain the reasons for the overpayment, indicate the possibility/impossibility of withholding funds forcibly in accordance with labor legislation. At the end of the letter, it is necessary to ask to consider the issue of returning the overpaid amount and to inform about the decision. The employee, in turn, may, in the form of an application, allow the employer to withhold money from the next salaries and other payments, or inform that he will return the money to the organization's cash desk in a specific period.

Can an employer count on a refund if he overpaid an employee upon dismissal? 

Only if the employee was paid more at the time of dismissal due to a calculation error (arithmetic/counting error). The Ministry of Labor explained that such a mistake is called the miscalculations of accountants — instead of adding two values, they multiplied them. Naturally, in the modern world, almost no one counts salaries and other payments manually — employers have switched to special software that makes calculations. In this regard, in case of overpayment, it is necessary to establish what kind of mistake was made: counting or technical — if technical, and the employee refuses to return the money, then even through the court they will not be able to return.

The courts refer to technical errors due to which the employer will not be able to return the money: typos, double payments, entering erroneous information into the payroll program, misinterpreting the law or internal acts of the company on salary/bonuses, etc.

If an accounting error occurs, the employer must notify the employee in writing of the incident and indicate the deadline for the return of funds. If the employee does not voluntarily repay the debt, the employer has the right to issue an order to withhold money from future receipts. Mandatory condition: the employee must be familiar with the order and indicate that he agrees with the procedure and the amount of deduction. If an agreement is not reached between the employee and the employer — the employer can only go to court to return the overpaid money. In court, he will have to prove that the reason for the overpayment was precisely the counting error — otherwise, the court will side with the employee.


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Corvette “Thundering” hit the target “Caliber” on the exercises “Vostok-2022”

The Thundering Corvette of the Pacific Fleet successfully hit the target fired by the Caliber complex missile during the Vostok-2022 exercises, according to the Russian Ministry of Defense.

According to the ministry, a cruise missile hit a target ship that was in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk more than 300 km from the Thundering. At the same time, in accordance with the conditions of the exercises, the rocket had to go around natural obstacles on its way to the target.

“Such shooting in the Russian Navy was carried out for the first time,” the message says.

Recall that the exercises “Vostok-2022” started August 31st. They are held at nine training grounds. More than 50,000 military personnel and over 5,000 pieces of weapons and equipment are planned to be involved in the exercises.

On Tuesday, September 6, the active phase of the maneuvers will begin at the Sergeevsky training ground. in Primorsky Krai. Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived there.

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What is known about the rescue of a wounded polar bear from Dixon Island?

A wounded female bear from Dixon Island will be transported to Moscow and prepared for an emergency operation. The animal is in a very serious condition: it has a gunshot wound to the left shoulder blade, severe dehydration and paralyzed hind legs. Moscow doctors are ready to help. Veterinarians from the Moscow Zoo will fight for the life of the Red Book animal.

What happened to the bear? 

The wounded bear was found on September 3 near the village of Dikson. According to the Taimyr Telegraph, she came to the village two weeks ago. The circumstances under which the animal was injured are being investigated by law enforcement and supervisory authorities. 

Head of Rosprirodnadzor Svetlana Radionovawrote in her telegram channel that the animal may have shown aggression towards the locals. 

« We have already passed the corresponding request. For illegal hunting of a polar bear, the perpetrators may face criminal liability, », — wrote Radionova. 

In her message, the head of Rosprirodnadzor reminded that residents should not feed polar bears. When these animals appear near the settlements, the responsible services should be immediately informed. According to her, then neither animals nor people will suffer.

What is known about the state of the bear? 

To save the animal, veterinarians from the Moscow Zoo, as well as representatives of the hunting supervision and environmental prosecutor's office of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, were brought from Moscow. Doctors injected the animal with sleeping pills to examine it on the spot. According to veterinarians, a young female aged from one and a half to two years old, weighing 50-60 kg, has a wound in the shoulder blade area. At the time of the arrival of specialists, the bear could only move its head and front paws.

«What kind of wound is this — chopped, cut, and what happened to her, it's hard to say. Maybe some kind of bruise, maybe — ran into a rod. This could provoke a spinal injury, muscle pain shock. While it is difficult to say, everything will be shown by the examination, », — Director of the branch of the Moscow Zoo in Veliky Ustyug Andrey Solodkov.

Where will the animal be treated?

After providing first aid, it was decided to transport the animal by aircraft to Norilsk for further examination for the presence of foreign bodies. The bear was placed in an enclosure on the site of the former dispensary Valek. After anesthesia, the bear began to slowly recover, but, as the veterinarians say, despite the signs of life, the prognosis for survival is critical. 

After the examination, the animal was decided to be transported to Moscow for an emergency operation. As I wrote in the telegram channel Director of the Moscow Zoo Svetlana Akulova, the bear was loaded onto the plane Norilsk — Moscow. According to her, the condition of the animal is assessed as stably serious, despite the fact that the bear's appetite has returned. 

On September 6, a plane with a wounded polar bear arrived in the capital. Moscow doctors are ready to help. The wounded animal will be delivered to the Moscow Zoo. 

«After the veterinarians determined the condition of the bear as extremely serious and reported that there was one chance in a thousand to save her, the working group decided to transport the white bear to the Moscow Zoo», — said Akulova.

The director of the zoo says that there is a chance for salvation, since the bear is young. 

“Maybe everything will work out. On Dixon, she would have died without help, — said Akulova. 


Информационное агентство «Таймырский телеграф» /

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In which regions do the first frosts come?

In several regions of European Russia, the first frosts were observed in the past three nights. Their southern border dropped to the line Bryansk — Nizhny Novgorod, Phobos weather center reports.

The thermometers dropped below zero in the Moscow region. Early in the morning on Sunday, September 4, 0° was recorded in Volokolamsk. On the night of Monday, September 5, in Kolomna the temperature dropped to & minus 0.5 °, in Serpukhov — up to −0.7°, in Shatura — to −1.8°.

Inhabitants of what other regions have experienced or will face the first frosts in the coming days?

Regional departments of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of several regions began sending mailouts warning residents about possible emergencies due to frost. In the Yaroslavl region, such alerts began to arrive as early as September 2. On September 5, in the Yaroslavl region, frosts were again warned: according to weather forecasters, up to −2… 0 ° expected in places in the region during the night and morning hours from 6 to 8 September.

About frosts next night up to −2° reported the regional department of the Ministry of Emergency Situations in the Tver region on September 5. In the Rostov region, the regional Ministry of Emergency Situations announced a decrease in air and soil temperatures to −1…-2° in the second half of the night and in the morning of September 6-8.

About lowering the air temperature to 0°; in some districts of the Volgograd region on the night of Tuesday, September 6, the regional TsGMS reported. In Mari El, weather forecasters warned that on the night and morning of September 6, frosts on the soil up to & minus 2 & deg; are expected in the region.

The first frosts come not only to the territory of the European part of Russia. The Ural Hydrometeorological Center predicts frosts in the air and on the soil surface up to −2° places in the Sverdlovsk region on September 5-7. In Kuzbass, the arrival of the first frosts is expected before September 10.


https://iz .ru/

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Online Olympiad in Russian and Literature. Students will test their knowledge

Story National projects

From September 6 to October 3 on the educational online platform with the support of the national project “Culture” there will be a free Olympiad in Russian language and literature for schoolchildren in grades 1-9. The competition is designed to increase students' interest in school subjects, to help develop students' creative abilities, and to acquaint them with the possibilities of new generation model libraries, the National Electronic Library and the NEB Svet reading application.

Online Olympiad -format

The interactive tasks of the first combined Olympiad in Russian language and literature will allow teachers to assess students' understanding of the main topics of the school curriculum, and the participants — test knowledge and memorize important information that will be useful in your studies. A variety of topics are presented in the Russian language block: semantics, morphology, vocabulary, phraseology, orthoepy. In the block of literature for the first time there will be tasks not only for the content and genre features of works, but also for knowledge of the biography and bibliography of Russian writers. For the successful completion of tasks, in-depth knowledge of the school curriculum is not required, which provides equal chances for victory for all participants.

The Olympiad is held online. To participate, it is enough to have a computer with a modern browser and Internet access. You can pass a knowledge test on your own at home, at school with a teacher, as well as in model libraries that are opening throughout the country thanks to the national project “Culture”. And the National Electronic Library (NEB) and the free application “NEB Light”, which contains an extensive collection of world classics and popular science works, will help prepare for the Olympiad.

Assignments will inspire in-depth study of subjects

General Director of ANO “National Priorities” Sofia Malyavina noted that the national project “Culture” allows all residents of the country to realize their talents and creative opportunities. «National project “Culture” — this is a big, truly large-scale story about the development of culture in all areas: infrastructure, creative grants, and digitalization. At the same time, some measures are just aimed at popularizing reading, increasing interest in the Russian language and literature. You can download the books of Russian classics and learn unexpected facts about famous works on the Kultura.RF portal.

The National Electronic Library is annually replenished with unique book monuments: 8,000 digitized publications per year. Comfortable model libraries are opening all over the country. And all this is available absolutely free of charge, — she thinks.

“We at see it as our goal to inspire the child for the comprehensive development and study of various fields of knowledge, training attention and logic. The format of the Olympiads allows us to achieve this goal. When creating the Russian Language and Literature Olympiad, we studied the needs of schoolchildren and noticed that children like to read and learn additional facts about works, their characters and the authors themselves. Therefore, we tried to add tasks for knowledge of the biography and bibliography of writers. We hope that this approach, combined with the interactivity of tasks and colorful illustrations, will increase their interest in reading and help inspire children to study classical literature in depth, — emphasizes Ilya Parshin, CEO of the educational online platform

Pupils of grades 1–9 can take part in the competition. To do this, you need to register on the platform, enter your personal account and select the Olympiad in Russian language and literature, click the “Start the Olympiad” button; and start solving problems. For teachers of grades 5 & 9, the Olympiad website also contains methodological materials and a script for conducting a thematic lesson in literature.

Each student who has solved all the tasks of the Olympiad will receive, depending on the number of points scored, a diploma of the winner, a commendable diploma or certificate of participation: the document will appear in your personal account on the platform. Teachers will receive thank you letters.

Next generation libraries 

The main task of the national project “Culture” — to make culture more accessible to every inhabitant of the country. To this end, new generation model libraries are being created throughout the country. There are currently 644 such institutions in Russia. They open on the basis of old libraries. In the updated version, along with paper books, there are digitized copies of the works of great authors, connection to the collections of the National Electronic Library. Model Library — this is not just a book depository and a reading room, but an art hall for presentations or a multimedia coworking area for work, communication and education. 

Model libraries have computers, projectors, virtual reality glasses and even synthesizers. Thanks to the project, urban and rural residents receive equal opportunities in access to information and modern technologies. In addition, the National Electronic Library is available to everyone, where you can find not only modern books, but also rare documents. Every year, according to the national project “Culture” 8 thousand book monuments are digitized and added to open access.

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Elizabeth – faith, talent and seals. What was the real Empress like?

On TV channel "Russia-1" the show of the series «Elizabeth» — the first season of 12 episodes has already exceeded half. And, therefore, the viewers, satiated with a beautiful picture, costumes and wigs, swords and cupids, have a question — what Elizabeth was really?

Apparently, the authors of the series, creating the image of Elizabeth, turned to the legacy of authoritative historians — Nikolai Karamzin and Vasily Klyuchevsky. Their reviews about "Peter’s daughter" have become a kind of canon. Here is what Klyuchevsky wrote about the Empress: “Lazy and capricious, she was frightened of any serious thought, disgusted by any business activity. Elizabeth was a disorderly and wayward Russian lady of the 18th century. Karamzin generally cuts off the shoulder: “Elizabeth, an idle, voluptuous, could not govern the state well …”

Deviating from canon is scary — whoever decides to do this must provide some new vision of Elizabeth in return, and this is difficult, long and is associated with serious scientific research. Following an ingrained stamp is, of course, easier and more reliable. And even better — to simplify this canon to the utmost, to cut off all “superfluous” from it; and leave only what can handle.

Apparently, this explains the completely wild, incredible picture. In in           s s the series shown did not see temples, nor worship services, nor fools, nor choirboys, nor monks. There was only one episode, hinting at the fact that there is still some kind of religion in the Russian Empire — this is when “pages” The Elizabeths dress up as nuns to break into the house of Osterman. It turns out that Russia of that time — almost an atheistic state. Well and Elizabeth, respectively, flesh from flesh and blood from the blood of this system. Orthodoxy? Piety? No, I haven heard it.

The real Elizaveta Petrovna could from such a picture to go berserk. In this regard, a smart move was made by the creators of the film “Midshipmen, forward!”. In the first scene we are shown Paris — a place from where intrigues are woven against Russia. A second scene — already Petersburg. But not just the capital of the Empire, but a service in the temple, where there are the main persons who set the historical framework of the plot — and Vice-Chancellor Bestuzhev, and his sister-in-law Anna Gavrilovna Bestuzheva, and her daughter Anastasia Yaguzhinskaya, and French Ambassador D’Allion , and Elizabeth Lestok's life physician… Which, by the way, corresponded to the historical truth — someone would try to neglect the church service! Elizaveta Petrovna never forgave such things. Orthodox worship, and religion in general, occupied a special place in her life. A huge number of “wanderers and” wanderers ” at the yard. Constant conversations with the blessed and "elder" — the Empress called them "the most important people". Constant pilgrimages, including on foot, to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. Or rather, then back in Trinity-Sergius Monastery — the honorary title of the Lavra was given to the monastery just at the insistence of Elizabeth. By   her same decree, a Theological Seminary was opened there.

Elizabeth was called “the last truly pious Russian ruler.” And she demonstrated these qualities while still being a princess. How could you "not notice" the deep and peculiar religious feeling of Elizabeth — big mystery. The most interesting thing is that the notorious “love” fits perfectly into this context. Elizabeth was unusually gifted musically. In the first place was, of course the same, church music — the princess “she herself understood good music and” sang in “choirs with” singers. And now remember how, in fact, a simple Cossack Alexei Razumovsky got to the court, half-destitute son of a bitter drunkard? He same — the most famous, the most important favorite of Elizabeth? Correct — he was noticed in the church choir of the village of Chemer, in Chernihiv region. And the fate of Alexei Grigorievich was decided — Elizabeth valued good voices by her weight in gold.

In general, the name of Elizabeth is associated with an unprecedented rise in national musical culture. Poet Gavriil Derzhavincalled 20 years of her rule “the age of song”. By the way, there is an opinion that she composed and she — Elizabeth is credited with the authorship of the song “In the village, the village of Pokrovsky”, which in style is very reminiscent of a classic cruel romance. And if we consider that it was at her courtyard that domestic musicians began to master such an instrument as a guitar, then it turns out that all the current Russian song — from bards and chanson to romance and punk rock, it has its roots in the Elizabethan age.

There is, however, a great temptation to take at face value a stanza from a wonderful humorous poetic treatise Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy«History of the Russian State from Gostomysl to Timashev»:

Merry Queen
There was Elizabeth:
Sings and has fun,
Only there is no order.< /em>

In really — the creators of the series demonstrate the categorical unwillingness of Elizabeth to do business. And not that to government. And & nbsp; in general, any, except amorous. There is some truth in this. When she had already ascended the throne, Vice-Chancellor Alexei Bestuzhev had to involve the Empress in state affairs with the help of cunning. Knowing that Elizabeth did not like to read paper, Bestuzhev wrote on the envelope: “To Her Majesty, not only the most secret and most important, but” and “very terrible content.” Curious by nature, Elizabeth couldn't get past this, and without fail opened the envelope.

But the trick is that it was already in the mature years of Elizabeth. And her aversion to all kinds of papers is not last of all due to the fact that in youth she drank it all over the edge. Her mother, Empress Catherine, who ascended the throne after the death of Peter the Greatwas almost illiterate. And and therefore, during the period of her reign, it was Elizabeth who had to read all the documents, without exception, sent for the highest signature. Read aloud. Discuss their contents with the addressee. And then also to sign for an illiterate mother. In fact, Elizabeth gave her best years to the craft of the personal secretary of the first person of the state. From 1725 to 1727  she didn't rush across the dunes and powder the brains of the  pages involving senseless and dangerous intrigues, but was with her mother and handled business. It's clear that actually from under the stick. Rather, in obedience to a child's duty. Is it any wonder that this occupation, which partly took away her youth, did not subsequently cause any good feelings?

In fairness, it must be said that Empress Elizabeth was diligently engaged in some matters. And the nature of these affairs, in general, quite state-owned, draws her as a person, firstly, gifted, and secondly — pretty.

So, Elizabeth shows an enviable knowledge in commercial affairs, in European logistics and in food industry. Several of her  nominal decrees and notes are known, where the empress explains in detail how and where to buy Tokay wine, how to transport it, and how unsuitable transportation can affect the quality of wine: Vistula, flowing into the Baltic Sea; and by this river in ships to go to Gdansk, where we will send a packet boat, to transport them to Petersburg. And from now on, when we, packs in Moscow will be, then we will send wines to Moscow through Poland and Kyiv. However, remember that young wines may be damaged by the sea … ” Having revived the activity of the special Tokay Commission, which was engaged in the supply of Hungarian wine to the court, the Empress actually oversees the work of this institution for many years — here her personal interest is affected: “And I can do without this wine, which you know…”

But Elizabeth demonstrated a much greater scope by regulating the cat service. The first personal decree about cats belongs to Peter the Great — it was he who ordered “to have cats at the barns” & mdash; for the protection of those, and also for rats and mice intimidation. His daughter went on. Her  decree of  2 November 1745 of the year is known:  Find in Kazan local breeds of castrated (castrated) best and large thirty cats, convenient for catching mice, and send to S.-Petersburg a cat  court of her  imperial majesty. Well how can you not remember Bestuzhev's remark from "Midshipmen": "Yakovlev! Don't get a cat — I’ll make the mice eat it myself!”

Subsequently, Elizabeth will unfold in & nbsp; this field in full & nbsp; Her  decrees of the 1750s paint a picture of the general prosperity of seals in  state service”. “In the              ) “For planting in the  newly made under the Golovinsky house of Her Imperial Majesty, the winter quarters will select cats up to three hundred.” And, finally, a masterpiece: “Officers of the Court Office from now don let beef and mutton cats release,and instead of that,every day they release hazel grouses and grouse one by one".

In a word, instead of an eccentric, lazy and  narrow-minded young lady, who is only  occupied with the search for «love and female happiness», we are presented with a rather nice person. Moderately religious, talented, able to force himself to obey, possessing extraordinary organizational skills, and, finally, loving cats.

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Doomed to melt. “Zombie ice” from Greenland will lead to floods

This summer, it was abnormally hot not only in Europe, but and in the north of the Atlantic. Glaciers of Greenland — and there is the second largest ice sheet of the planet after the Antarctic — began to melt even faster. In                   recently published  In the journal Nature Climate Change, a study is devoted to the melting of ice reserves that could raise the level of the world's oceans by at least 27 centimeters. Scientists call it “zombie ice” — probably because it is doomed to melt away.

The point of no return passed two years ago

The melting of the Greenland glaciers is on the rise. This summer, the peak of ice destruction occurred on 15-17 July. The scientists who work on the island even walked around it in t-shirts these days. “The amount of ice that melted in Greenland between July 15 and July 17 would have been enough to fill 7.2 million Olympic swimming pools. That's 6 billion tons of water a day!  — one of them told reporters.

Such a rapid melting of ice is difficult to recognize as the norm, even taking into account the average climatic indicators of the last 30-40 years. Scientists believe that the disappearance of the Greenland ice sheet passed the point of no return a couple of years ago. Now, no amount of efforts to prevent global warming will be able to stop it. And if this giant shell of ice melts entirely, then the level of the World Ocean will rise by 7.5 meters.

A recent study by Danish glaciologists focuses on only a small part of the Greenland ice sheet. This is the so-called “zombie ice” — it is attached to large glaciers, but is no longer fed by them as they receive less and less snow due to climate change. Without replenishment, it doomed to melt and inevitably raise the sea level.

“This is dead ice. It will simply melt and disappear from the ice cover. It will go to the ocean, no matter what scenario of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change awaits us  — says glaciologist at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, William Colgan, one of the authors of the study. Another researcher, Jason Box, notes that the situation is increasingly reminiscent of the expression “one foot in” the grave.

Calculations show that the rapidly melting ice of Greenland by 2100 will raise the level of the World Ocean by at least 27 centimeters. In a pessimistic scenario, the rise is expected to be three times greater, up to 78 centimeters.

As if you put an ice cube in hot tea

A year ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, operating under the auspices of the UN, published a regular report on what lies ahead for the planet. The section on sea level rise says that even if the warming process stops at +1.5 °C compared to the pre-industrial period (and this mark will be reached by 2040), sea level by the end of the 21st century, it will still grow by at least 2-3 meters. The contribution of Greenland's glaciers to this value, according to UN experts, will be from 5 to 13 centimeters.

It is easy to see that last year's forecast of climatologists diverges from what scientists from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland claim in their current study, and after all, they work directly on the glacier. Even the minimum sea level rise predicted by them (27 centimeters) is twice the maximum figure voiced by their colleagues a year ago (13 centimeters).

What did these scientists do? They analyzed how the Greenland glaciers are replenished (this is due to precipitation, but less and less), using a generally accepted methodology for calculating minimum ice loss. It turned out that 3.3% of  its total volume will melt in any case. Moreover, even these 3.3% — huge mass. If you distribute this “zombie ice” evenly over the United States, the height of the layer will be 11 meters.

How long will it take for that the “doomed” the ice has melted, scientists don't know yet. But most likely, they say, it will happen by the end of the century, or, at the very least, by the year 2150. Glaciologists compare this process to  like putting an ice cube into  hot tea.

It may seem that 27 centimeters — it's not so much. But if you add them to tides and storms, which are already causing problems for the inhabitants of densely populated coastal zones, it becomes clear that even such a slight increase in sea level will lead to huge social, economic and environmental consequences.

< p>To and the same, as already mentioned, there is a pessimistic scenario. If the Greenland ice melts at the rate that was observed in 2012, and this begins to repeat annually, the rise in the level of the world seas could be 78 centimeters. The result will be flooding of large areas of low-lying coastlines, increased flooding and storm surge.

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Smallpox will be defeated again. What is the new cure for monkey disease scientists have found?

Plot World monkeypox outbreak

The fields of the Eastern Economic Forum (EEF) are filled with important medical news regarding both smallpox and monkeypox, which continues to roam the world today. head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova.

Moreover, this is not even one piece of news, but two — they refer to a new vaccine and a new cure for smallpox. We emphasize that they will be effective against monkeypox as well.

 We will have a full arsenal of remedies against all types of smallpox

Here is the first news, which was announced by the head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova: “We we have a new vaccine preparation against smallpox, which , I hope just just a few days have to get out registration, we are waiting for this decision».

And here the second one: “We we will ready from smallpox, I think<…> in  to receive a new fourth-generation drug within the next weeks».

Both news are breakthrough — they relate to ultra-modern means. And this shows that Russia is the world leading power in infection control.

Who remembers the old…

And after all, these drugs became possible only because in the 1990s in SSC of Virology and Biotechnology “Vector” smallpox virus was preserved in Novosibirsk. Then the United States, which also has a collection of such viruses, insistently offered to destroy them. And Russia has been criticized by many for refusing to do so.

But from today's time we see how wise this decision was. Even if you believe the Americans wouldn keep thepoxvirus just in case, you are losing in in 2014  in US the National Institutes of Health low-temperature refrigerator accidentally discovered forgotten glass ampoules that had been stored for more than 60 years — they had the variola virus in 

But let take a closer look at the vaccine and the drug. Why are they unique? Both of them were developed in "Vector", because only here there is a virus necessary for the development of a vaccine and a drug.

In Russia has created the best vaccine against smallpox

“Vector” applied for registration of a new smallpox vaccine in May of this year. Just days after the first case of monkeypox was identified in England. Naturally, it wasn developed in these days, it was created and tested earlier.

It would seem, why do this, because WHO announced the victory over smallpox back in 1979. In fact, the risks of a variola virus recurrence remain. It may appear as a result of the thawing of permafrost zones, in which smallpox burials are located. Well and about monkeypox and you don need  — the current outbreak is not the first in history. And probably not the last one. Before they were already not only in Africa, but and in Great Britain, Israel, Singapore and the USA. In addition, the emergence of new orthopoxviruses dangerous to humans (these are “blood” relatives of natural and monkeypox viruses) is not ruled out. And   you have to be prepared for these challenges.

Vector's vaccine called “OrthopoxVac”, it is made on the basis of a weakened live vaccinia virus. Until now, only third-generation vaccines from attenuated smallpox viruses have been available in the world. They give a reduced immune response, and therefore they need to be vaccinated several times. Russia has taken the next step in the development of vaccines.

“We” have developed a new, fourth generation vaccine, in which five virulence genes and one gene that inhibits the development of the immune response have been deleted. That is deletion of this sixth gene increases the immune response to administration of the vaccinia virus», — tells chief researcher of the department of genomic research “Vector” Rospotrebnadzor Sergei Shchelkunov. To summarize, the new vaccine is safe, because it has removed the most dangerous virulence genes, and is more effective due to the removal of the gene that suppresses the immune response of our body.

There are only two cures for smallpox in the world, and one —  we 

8 August "Vector" also filed an application for registration of a new smallpox drug. The fourth generation drug is effective against all types of orthopoxviruses, which include the monkeypox virus. The medicine was developed by scientists of the Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry named after V.I. N. N. Vorozhtsova together with the specialists of “Vector” and is called NIOH-14.

The drug has a direct antiviral effect, it blocks the formation of the virus envelope without which it cannot exist. The  drug has a competitor — American drug ST-246. But appearance of our NIOCH-14 is very important for the whole world. Indeed, a few years ago, WHO set scientists the task of creating a second drug with a different mechanism of action, because resistance to an American drug may arise, and there will be nothing to replace it.

And our scientists solved this problem. Moreover, NIOH-14 has a lot of advantages. It virtually non-toxic and acts in a very small dosage.

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Truss to allocate £130bn to freeze prices in UK bills

Bloomberg: Liz Truss will allocate up to £130bn to fight the energy crisis in Britain From October 1, electricity prices in Britain will rise by 80%, and the average marginal household bill will exceed £3.5 thousand, Ofgem previously warned. Truss intends to fix the ceiling price at £1971 : 320px) and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2), (max-width: 320px) and (min-resolution: 192dpi)” >

New prime minister British Minister Liz Truss plans to allocate up to £130 billion to fight inflation and the energy crisis as part of her economic program. This is reported by Bloomberg with reference to the relevant document.

According to the agency, Truss' plan is to fix the price ceilings for electricity and gas for the typical British family at or below £1971 ($2,300). Thus, the total cost of the program could be up to £130 billion over the next 18 months.

Lise Truss was elected as the new Prime Minister of Great Britain the day before, September 5th. She was voted for by 57.4% of the members of the party, her main rival— Rishi Sunaka— supported by 42.6%.

In early September, Truss said that if elected prime minister, she would present a plan to combat rising electricity prices within her first week in office. Then she noted that the British authorities must make “difficult decisions to ensure that we do not find ourselves in this position every autumn and winter.”

The energy crisis in Europe has been going on since the beginning of this year, but intensified in the summer due to record heat and anti-Russian sanctions. In Britain, in particular, this translates into record electricity bills. So, by mid-August, the UK residents' debt for electricity reached a record £1.3 billion, and inflation for the first time in 40 years exceeded 10.1%.

At the end of August, Reuters, citing a statement by the British energy regulator Ofgem, reported that electricity prices in the UK would increase by 80% from October 1, and the average household marginal bill for the year would exceed £ 3.5 thousand (more than $ 4.1 thousand). ). The Guardian points out that in this way the upper limit of the cost of electricity at £3549 will be almost three times higher than last winter— £1277. At the same time, the head of the regulator, Jonathan Brearley, warned that from January 1, suppliers plan to raise prices for consumers again.

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Tusk said about the “avalanche of desperate messages” due to gas prices

Ex-Prime Minister of Poland Tusk announced an “avalanche of desperate messages” due to rising gas prices The Polish oil and gas company PGNiG proposed to increase gas prices by 12-15 times. The ex-premier warned that “the noose is tightening so” that dozens or hundreds of the best Polish factories could “collapse” in January-February img/3/39/756624400250393.jpg 673w” media=”(max-width: 320px) and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2), (max-width: 320px) and (min-resolution: 192dpi)” >

Against the backdrop of the initiative of the Polish oil and gas company PGNiG to raise gas prices by 12-15 times, Poland was swept by an “avalanche of desperate messages”; from citizens. This was stated by the former Prime Minister of the country, the leader of the opposition party “Civil Platform” Donald Tusk, Polsat News TV channel reports.

“In the last few dozen hours, there has been such an avalanche of desperate messages:“Do something, because we really won’t survive,”— said Tusk.

He pointed out that at the moment PGNiG offers prices three times higher than in Germany, France or Spain.

be, and hundreds of the best Polish factories,»,— concluded the former Prime Minister of the country.

On March 23, Russian President Vladimir Putin instructed to transfer payments from unfriendly countries (the list includes all EU countries) for gas into rubles from April 1.< /p>

Nevertheless, some EU countries have reported that they do not intend to pay for gas in rubles, considering this a violation of the terms of the contracts, which in most require payment in dollars or euros. Poland was among them.

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“We won't pay. <…> Considering all possible risks, we are ready for them,— Piotr Naimsky, the authorized representative of the Polish government for strategic energy infrastructure, said.

At the end of April, Gazprom suspended gas supplies to Poland, as Warsaw refused to pay in rubles under the current contract, while gas transit through the Yamal pipeline; Europe was not reduced.

“Gazprom” also warned that in the event of unauthorized withdrawal of gas from transit volumes to third countries, supplies for transit would be reduced by this volume. Later, the company reported that Warsaw buys Russian gas through Germany, from where it is delivered in reverse to Poland through the Yamal gas pipeline— Europe.

On May 11, by presidential decree, the Russian government approved a list of 31 companies that fell under retaliatory Russian sanctions. The list is mainly former "daughters" Gazprom, including EuRoPol GAZ, which owns part of the Yamal&mdash gas pipeline; Europe.

The official representative of “Gazprom” Sergey Kupriyanov said that the Russian sanctions imposed on EuRoPol GAZ mean a ban on the company from using the capacities of the Yamal gas pipeline; Europe to transport Russian gas through Poland.

Polish Minister of Climate and Environment Anna Moscow announced on May 23 that Warsaw was tearing up the Yamalskoye 1993 intergovernmental gas agreement with Russia on gas supplies.

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